During his speech on World AIDS Day, South African President Jacob Zuma promised to ramp up HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs for children and high-risk groups. The new plan calls for treating all HIV-infected babies in a country whose child mortality rate has risen since 1990. “Our message is simple,” President Zuma said, “we have to stop the spread of HIV. We must reduce the rate of new infections. Prevention is our most powerful weapon against the epidemic.”

President Zuma’s commitments set a new ideological standard in South Africa that breaks from previous conceptions of the disease. Former President Thabo Mbeki received widespread criticism for his ideas about the nature and treatment of the epidemic. He is often noted as a denialist of the viral cause of AIDS and the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. A Harvard University study reported in The New York Times found that more than 330,000 premature deaths could have been prevented if Mbeki’s administration had backed the provision of antiretroviral drugs to AIDS patients.

Despite Mbeki’s misguided stance, that Jacob Zuma reversed his predecessor’s rhetoric on HIV/AIDS came as somewhat of a surprise. A husband to three wives – an acceptable facet of his Zulu heritage but a risk factor for contracting HIV – and the defendant in a 2006 criminal case for the rape of an HIV-positive friend, he is an improbable leader in the AIDS movement.

But the public announcement of his policy overhaul stands to salvage his reputation and, of course, countless lives. South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV in the world: UNAIDS/WHO estimate that 5.7 million are infected with HIV, including 3.2 million women and 280,000 children aged 0–14. Zuma’s particular focus on women and children heralds a concrete and strategic approach to curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. He said that the policy changes to take effect next April would include treatment for all children under one year old who test positive for HIV, with no regard for their CD4 count. Treatment is expanding for other high-risk groups, such as people with tuberculosis and HIV, as well as pregnant women who are HIV positive. Counseling, testing, and treatment would all be part of the care package.

UNAIDS executive director Michel Sidibé spoke at the event before President Zuma took the stage. In his speech he correlated health and human rights, emphasizing in particular the position of women and children. He remarked, “AIDS reveals many fundamental injustices. While mother-to-child transmission is now part of the history books in the North, 390,000 African babies were born infected in 2008. Only half of pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa received treatment to prevent transmission of the virus to their child, even though evidence shows that with full access, we can virtually eliminate HIV infection in newborn babies.”

President Zuma hopes to cut infections in half and provide treatment to at least 80% of HIV/AIDS patients by 2011. It’s a tall order but not insurmountable, especially with aid from countries like the United States, which will give South Africa an additional $120 million over the next two years for AIDS treatments. Zuma’s policy reforms are a milestone in South Africa’s battle with HIV/AIDS, but his ultimate success lies in their translation into practice and implementation. Only then can a more ambitious goal be sought: universal access to treatment.

 
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